Four Frightened People (1934)


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Four Frightened People (1934)

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Director: Cecil B DeMille

Cast: Claudette Colbert, Herbert Marshall, Mary Boland, William Gargan, Leo Carillo, Nella Walker, Tetsu Komai, Delmar Costello

78 min

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Four Frightened People is a 1934 American Pre-Code adventure film directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring Claudette ColbertHerbert MarshallMary Boland, and William Gargan. It is based on the novel by E. Arnot Robertson.

Plot

The film tells the story of two men (Marshall and Gargan) and two women (Colbert and Boland), who leave from a plague-ridden ship and reach the Malayan jungle. The relationships between the four people before they enter the jungle are examined and are transformed as they interact with natural phenomena and the natives who populate the jungle. The film also relates how each of the four people carried on in life after they emerged from the jungle.

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Cast

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Filming locations

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Production crew

  • Executive producer (uncredited) – Emanuel Cohen
  • Art Direction – Roland Anderson
  • Production Manager (uncredited) – Roy Burns
  • Assistant Director (uncredited) – Cullen Tate, James Dugan
  • Sound Mixer (uncredited) – Harry Lindgren
  • Double (uncredited) – Mildred Mernie as Claudette Colbert, Bruce Warren as Herbert Marshall, Leota Lorraine as Mary Boland, Carl Mudge as William Gargan, Curley Dresden as Leo Carrillo

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Reception

The film was a box office disappointment for Paramount.[1]

Home Video Release

This film, along with The Sign of the CrossCleopatraThe Crusades and Union Pacific, was released on DVD in 2006 by Universal Studios as part of The Cecil B. DeMille Collection.

References

  1. Jump up^ By, D. W. (1934, Nov 25). TAKING A LOOK AT THE RECORD. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.sl.nsw.gov.au/docview/101193306?accountid=13902

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I Cover the Waterfront (1933)


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I Cover the Waterfront (1933)

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Director: James Cruze

Cast: Ben Lyon, Claudette Colbert, Ernest Torrence, Hobart Cavanaugh, Maurice Black, Purnell Platt, Harry Beresford, Wilfred Lucas,  Rosita Marstini

75 min

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I Cover the Waterfront is a 1933 American Pre-Code romantic drama film directed by James Cruze and starring Ben LyonClaudette ColbertErnest Torrence, and Hobart Cavanaugh.

Based on the book of the same name by Max Miller, the film is about a reporter who investigates a waterfront smuggling operation, and becomes romantically involved with the daughter of the man he is investigating.

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Plot

San Diego Standard reporter H. Joseph Miller (Ben Lyon) has been covering the city’s waterfront for the past five years and is fed up with the work. He longs to escape the waterfront life and land a newspaper job back East so he can marry his Vermont sweetheart. Miller is frustrated by the lack of progress of his current assignment investigating the smuggling of Chinese people into the country by a fisherman named Eli Kirk (Ernest Torrence). One morning after wasting a night tracking down bad leads, his editor at the Standard orders him to investigate a report of a girl swimming naked at the beach. There he meets Julie Kirk (Claudette Colbert), the daughter of the man he’s been investigating.

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Meanwhile, Eli Kirk and his crew are returning to San Diego with a Chinese passenger when the Coast Guard approaches. Not wanting to be caught with evidence of his smuggling operation, Kirk orders his men to weigh down the Chinaman and lower him overboard to his death. The Coast Guard, accompanied by Miller, board the boat but find nothing. The next day, Miller discovers the Chinaman’s body which was carried in with the tide, and takes it as evidence to his editor, who still remains skeptical of Kirk’s guilt. To get conclusive evidence, Miller tells him he plans to romance Kirk’s daughter Julie in order to break the smuggling operation.

When Kirk returns, he informs Julie that they will need to move on soon—maybe to Singapore—as soon as he can put together enough money for the voyage. One night, Julie discovers her father drunk at a boarding house. Miller, who was there investigating Kirk, helps Julie take her father home. Julie does not discourage Miller’s flirtations, and during the next few weeks they fall in love. She is able to help Miller see the beauty of the waterfront, and inspires him to improve the novel he’s been working for the past five years. While visiting an old Spanish galleon on a date, he playfully restrains her in a torture rack and kisses her passionately—and she returns his passion.

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Julie and Miller spend a romantic evening together on the beach, where she reveals that she and her father will be sailing away in the next few days. After spending the night in Miller’s apartment, Julie announces the next morning that she’s decided to stay, hoping that he will stay with her. When Miller learns from her that her father is due to dock at the Chinese settlement that night, he notifies the Coast Guard. At the dock, while the Coast Guard searches the vessel, Miller discovers a Chinaman hidden inside a large shark. When the Coast Guard attempt to arrest Kirk, he flees the scene but is wounded during his escape.

The next morning, Miller’s breaking story is published on the Standard’s front page. When a wounded Kirk makes his way back home, Julie learns that it was Miller who helped the Coast Guard uncover her father’s smuggling operation (of which she was unaware), and that she unknowingly revealed to him his landing location. Soon after, Miller, feeling guilty over the story’s impact to Julie’s life, arrives at her home and apologizes for the hurt he’s caused her, and announces that he loves her. Feeling used by his actions, an angry Julie sends him away.

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Later that night, Miller locates Kirk, who shoots him in the arm. Julie arrives to help her father escape, and seeing Miller wounded, she tells her father she cannot leave Miller to die. Seeing that she loves him, Kirk helps her take Miller to safety, after which Kirk dies. Later from his hospital bed, Miller acknowledges in his newspaper column that Kirk saved his life before he died. Sometime later, Miller returns to his apartment, where Julie is waiting to greet him. Noticing that she cleaned and transformed his place into a cozy home, he tells her he finally wrote the ending to his novel, “He marries the girl”. Julie acknowledges, “That’s a swell finish”, and the two embrace.

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Cast

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Production

Screenplay

Rights to the novel were bought by Edward Small and his partner Harry Goets in 1932. They made it through the Reliance Picture Corporation as the first of a six-film deal with United Artists.[2] Reliance co-produced the film with Joseph Schenck’s Art Cinema Corporation.[1]

Filming

I Cover the Waterfront was filmed from mid-February to early March 1933.[1]

Soundtrack

The film’s title song, “I Cover the Waterfront“, appears in the film only as an instrumental.[3] Written by Johnny Green and Edward Heyman, the song went on to become a jazz standard recorded by many artists, including Billie HolidayLouis ArmstrongFrank SinatraThe Ink Spots, and Ella Fitzgerald, among others.[4]

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Critical response

In his review for The New York Times, film critic Mordaunt Hall called the film “a stolid and often grim picture”.[5] While Hall felt the drama was not as good as some of director James Cruze’s previous work, the “clever acting of the principals”—especially that of Ernest Torrence—offset some of the film’s shortcomings.[5]

Hall found some of the scenes “more shocking than suspenseful” and felt a broader adaptation of Max Miller’s book may have been more interesting than the focus on the melodramatic series of incidents related to a sinister fisherman.[5]

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While acknowledging that “Colbert does well as Julie”, Hall did not find her convincing as a fisherman’s daughter because she does not look the type.[5] Hall reserved his highest praise for Ernest Torrence in his final screen performance.[5] Torrence died on May 15, 1933, shortly after the film was completed.

John Mosher of The New Yorker described the adaptation as a “commonplace screen romance,” but also praised the performance of the late Torrence, writing that he “was at the height of his power … One can foresee that many pictures will be empty things for lack of him.”[6] Variety called it “a moderately entertaining picture … The late Ernest Torrence has the meat part and his performance is in keeping with the standard he had set for himself. A pretty tough assignment they gave him, one in which it was necessary to capture sympathy in face of the worst sort of opposition from the script. He’ll be sorely missed on the screen.”[7]

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Remakes

I Cover the Waterfront was remade in 1961 by Edward Small as Secret of Deep Harbor.[3]

See also

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b c “I Cover the Waterfront”American Film Institute. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  2. Jump up^ Babcock, Muriel (September 24, 1932). “Notable Novel to be Filmed”. The New York Times. p. A7.
  3. Jump up to:a b “I Cover the Waterfront: Notes”. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  4. Jump up^ “I Cover the Waterfront”. Discogs. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e Hall, Mordaunt (May 18, 1933). “The Late Ernest Torrence in His Last Picture…”The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  6. Jump up^ Mosher, John (May 27, 1933). “The Current Cinema”. The New Yorker. New York: F-R Publishing Corp. p. 49.
  7. Jump up^ “I Cover the Waterfront”. Variety. New York: Variety, Inc. May 23, 1933. p. 15.

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It Happened One Night (1934)


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It Happened One Night (1934)

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Director: Frank Capra

Cast: Claudette Colbert, Clark Gable, Walter Connolly,  Roscoe Karns, Jameson Thomas, Alan Hale, Arthur Hoyt, Blanche Friderici, Charles C Wilson, Ward Bond,  Ken Carson

105 min

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It Happened One Night is a 1934 American pre-Code romantic comedy film with elements of screwball comedy directed and co-produced by Frank Capra, in collaboration with Harry Cohn, in which a pampered socialite (Claudette Colbert) tries to get out from under her father’s thumb and falls in love with a roguish reporter (Clark Gable).

The plot is based on the August 1933 short story “Night Bus” by Samuel Hopkins Adams, which provided the shooting title. One of the last romantic comedies created before the MPAA began enforcing the 1930 production code in 1934, the film was released on February 22, 1934.[4]

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It Happened One Night was the first movie to win all five major Academy Awards (Best Picture, Director, Actor, Actress, and Screenplay), a feat that would not be matched until One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975) and later by The Silence of the Lambs (1991). In 1993, It Happened One Night was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, being deemed “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”.[5] In 2013, the film underwent an extensive restoration.[6][7]

Plot

Spoiled heiress Ellen “Ellie” Andrews has eloped with pilot and fortune-hunter “King” Westley against the wishes of her extremely wealthy father, Alexander. Alexander wants to have the marriage annulled because he knows that Westley is really only interested in her money. Jumping ship in Florida, she runs away boarding a bus to New York City to reunite with her new spouse. She meets fellow bus passenger Peter Warne, a freshly out-of-work newspaper reporter. Soon Warne recognizes her and gives her a choice: If she will give him an exclusive on her story, he will help her reunite with Westley. If not, he will tell her father where she is. Ellie agrees to the first choice.

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As they go through several adventures together, Ellie loses her initial disdain for him and begins to fall in love. When they have to hitchhike, Peter fails to draw attention until Ellie displays a shapely leg to Danker, the next driver. When they stop en route, Danker tries to steal their luggage, but Peter seizes his car. Nearing the end of their journey, Ellie confesses her love to Peter. When the owners of the motel in which they are staying notice that Peter’s car is gone, they expel Ellie. Believing Peter has deserted her, Ellie telephones her father, who agrees to let her marry Westley. Meanwhile, Peter has obtained money from his editor to marry Ellie, but misses her on the road. Although Ellie has no desire to be with Westley, she believes Peter has betrayed her for the reward money, and agrees to have a second, formal wedding to Westley.

On her wedding day, she finally reveals the whole story. When Peter comes to Ellie’s home, Mr. Andrews offers him the reward money, but Peter insists on being paid only his expenses: a paltry $39.60. When Ellie’s father presses him for an explanation of his odd behavior, Peter admits he loves Ellie, and storms out. Westley arrives for his wedding via autogyro but at the wedding ceremony, Mr. Andrews reveals Peter’s refusal of the reward money to Ellie, sends her to Peter, and pays Westley off.

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Main cast

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Production

Neither Gable nor Colbert was the first choice to play the lead roles. Miriam Hopkins first rejected the part of Ellie. Robert Montgomery and Myrna Loy were then offered the roles, but each turned the script down, though Loy later noted that the final story as filmed bore little resemblance to the script that she and Montgomery had been offered for their perusal.[8]

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Margaret Sullavan also rejected the part.[9] Constance Bennett was willing to play the role if she could produce the film herself; however, Columbia Pictures would not allow this. Then Bette Davis wanted the role,[10] but was under contract with Warner Brothers and Jack L. Warner refused to lend her.[11]

Carole Lombardwas unable to accept, because the filming schedule conflicted with that of Bolero.[12] Loretta Young also turned it down.[13]

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It Happened One Night (1934) Directed by Frank Capra Shown from left: Clark Gable, Claudette Colbert

Harry Cohn suggested Colbert, and she initially turned the role down.[14] Colbert’s first film, For the Love of Mike(1927), had been directed by Capra, and it was such a disaster that she vowed to never make another with him. Later on, she agreed to appear in It Happened One Night only if her salary was doubled to $50,000, and also on the condition that the filming of her role be completed in four weeks so that she could take her well-planned vacation.[15]

According to Hollywood legend, Gable was lent to Columbia Pictures, then considered a minor studio, as some kind of “punishment” for refusing a role at his own studio. This tale has been partially refuted by more recent biographies. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer did not have a project ready for Gable, and the studio was paying him his contracted salary of $2,000 per week whether he worked or not. Louis B. Mayer lent him to Columbia for $2,500 per week, hence netting MGM $500 per week while he was gone.[16] Capra, however, insisted that Gable was a reluctant participant in the film.[17]

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Filming began in a tense atmosphere as Gable and Colbert were dissatisfied with the quality of the script. However, Capra understood their dissatisfaction and let screenwriter Robert Riskin rewrite the script.[16] Colbert, however, continued to show her displeasure on the set. She also initially balked at pulling up her skirt to entice a passing driver to provide a ride, complaining that it was unladylike. Upon seeing the chorus girl who was brought in as her body double, an outraged Colbert told the director, “Get her out of here. I’ll do it. That’s not my leg!”[18] Through the filming, Capra claimed, Colbert “had many little tantrums, motivated by her antipathy toward me”, however, “she was wonderful in the part.”[18]

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Reception

After filming was completed, Colbert complained to her friend, “I just finished the worst picture in the world.”[18][19]Columbia appeared to have low expectations for the film and did not mount much of an advertising campaign to promote it.[20]

Initial reviews, however, were generally positive. Mordaunt Hall of The New York Times called it “a good piece of fiction, which, with all its feverish stunts, is blessed with bright dialogue and a good quota of relatively restrained scenes.” He also described Colbert’s performance as “engaging and lively” and Gable as “excellent”.

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[21] Variety reported that it was “without a particularly strong plot”, but “manages to come through in a big way, due to the acting, dialog, situations and directing.”[22] Film Daily praised it as “a lively yarn, fast-moving, plenty humorous, racy enough to be tantalizing, and yet perfectly decorous.”[23] The New York Herald Tribunecalled it “lively and amusing.”[24] John Mosher of The New Yorker, however, panned it as “pretty much nonsense and quite dreary,”[25] which was probably the review Capra had in mind when he recalled in his autobiography that “sophisticated” critics had dismissed the film.[26]

Despite the positive reviews, the film only did so-so business in its initial run. However, after it was released to the secondary movie houses, word-of-mouth began to spread and ticket sales became brisk, especially in smaller towns where the film’s characters and simple romance struck a chord with moviegoers who were not surrounded by luxury.[24] It turned out to be a major box office smash, easily Columbia’s biggest hit to date.[27]

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In 1935, after her Academy Award nomination, Colbert decided not to attend the presentation, feeling confident that she would not win the award, and instead, planned to take a cross-country railroad trip. After she was named the winner, studio chief Harry Cohn sent someone to “drag her off” the train, which had not yet left the station, and take her to the ceremony. Colbert arrived wearing a two-piece traveling suit which she had the Paramount Pictures costume designer, Travis Banton, make for her trip.[28]

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Academy Awards

The film won all five of the Academy Awards for which it was nominated at the 7th Academy Awards for 1934:

Award Result Winner
Best Picture Won Columbia Pictures (Frank Capra and Harry Cohn)
Best Director Won Frank Capra
Best Actor Won Clark Gable
Best Actress Won Claudette Colbert
Best Writing, Adaptation Won Robert Riskin

It Happened One Night was the first film to win the “Big Five” Academy Awards (Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, and Best Writing). As of 2014, only two more films have achieved this feat: One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest in 1975 and The Silence of the Lambs in 1991.[29] It Happened One Night was also the last film to win both lead acting Academy Awards until One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest in 1975.

On December 15, 1996, Gable’s Oscar was auctioned off to Steven Spielberg for $607,500; Spielberg promptly donated the statuette to the Motion Picture Academy.[30] On June 9 of the following year, Colbert’s Oscar was offered for auction by Christie’s, but no bids were made for it.

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Others

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

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Radio adaptation

It Happened One Night was adapted as a radio play on the March 20, 1939 broadcast of Lux Radio Theater, with Colbert and Gable reprising their roles. The film was also adapted as a radio play for the January 28, 1940 broadcast of The Campbell Playhouse.

Digital restoration

In 2013 digital restoration of the film was done by Sony Colorworks, a new master film copy was made from the original negative and scanned at 4K. The digital pictures were digitally restored frame by frame at Prasad Corporation to remove dirt, tears, scratches and other artifacts, thereby returning the film to its original look.[37]

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In popular culture

It Happened One Night made an immediate impact on the public. In one scene, Gable undresses for bed, taking off his shirt to reveal that he is bare-chested. An urban legend claims that, as a result, sales of men’s undershirts declined noticeably.[38] The movie also prominently features a Greyhound bus in the story, spurring interest in bus travel nationwide.[39]

The unpublished memoirs of animator Friz Freleng mention that this was one of his favorite films. It Happened One Night has a few interesting parallels with the cartoon character Bugs Bunny, who made his first appearance six years later, and who Freleng helped develop. In the film, a minor character, Oscar Shapely, continually calls the Gable character “Doc”, an imaginary character named “Bugs Dooley” is mentioned once in order to frighten Shapely, and there is also a scene in which Gable eats carrots while talking quickly with his mouth full, as Bugs does.[40]

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Joseph Stalin was a fan of the film,[41] as was Adolf Hitler.[42]

Parodies of the film abound. The 1937 Laurel and Hardy comedy Way Out West parodied the famous hitchhiking scene, with Stan Laurel managing to stop a stage coach using the same technique.[43] Mel Brooks‘s film Spaceballs (1987) parodies the wedding scene. As she walks down the aisle to wed Prince Valium, Princess Vespa (Daphne Zuniga) is told by her father, King Roland, that Lone Starr forsook the reward for the princess’s return and only asked to be reimbursed for the cost of the trip.[44]

The film has also inspired a number of remakes, including the musicals Eve Knew Her Apples (1945) starring Ann Miller and You Can’t Run Away from It (1956) starring June Allyson and Jack Lemmon, which was directed and produced by Dick Powell.[45] The Sure Thing (1985), starring John Cusack, has some similarities.

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Recent films have also used familiar plot points from It Happened One Night. In Bandits, (2001), Joe Blake (Bruce Willis) erects a blanket partition between motel room beds out of respect for Kate Wheeler’s (Cate Blanchett‘s) privacy. He remarks that he saw them do the same thing in an old movie.[46] In Sex and the City 2Carrie and Mr. Big watch the film (specifically the hitchhiking scene) in a hotel; later in the film Carrie uses the idea which she got from the film to get a taxi in the Middle East. Also in an earlier episode of Sex and the City, Samantha mimics Claudette Colbert by showing some leg to stop a taxi.[47] The wedding scene at the end of Heartbreaker is a reprise of the wedding scene in It Happened One Night.[48]

Beginning in January 2014, the comic 9 Chickweed Lane tied a story arc to It Happened One Night when one of the characters, Lt. William O’Malley, is injured during World War II and believes himself to be Peter Warne. As he sneaks through German-occupied France, several plot points run parallel to that of It Happened One Nightand he believes his French contact to be Ellen Andrews.[49]

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Foreign film adaptations

It Happened One Night has been adapted into numerous Indian films. These include three Hindi adaptations: Chori Chori (1956), Nau Do Gyarah (1957) and Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin (1991), one Tamil adaptation Chandhrodhayam (1966), and one Kannada adaptation Hudugaata (2007).[50]

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See also

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References

Notes

  1. Jump up^ “‘It Happened One Night’ (A).” British Board of Film Classification, March 13, 1934; retrieved November 18, 2014.
  2. Jump up^ Rudy Behlmer, Behind the Scenes, Samuel French, 1990 p 37
  3. Jump up^ “Box Office Information for ‘It Happened One Night’.” The Numbers; retrieved April 12, 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Brown 1995, p. 118.
  5. Jump up^ “National Film Registry.” Archived March 28, 2013, at the Wayback MachineLibrary of Congress. Retrieved: October 28, 2011.
  6. Jump up^ “Restoring the Frank Capra Classic, It Happened One Night.” CreativeCOW.net. Retrieved: April 16, 2014.
  7. Jump up^ “Colorworks completes brilliant 4K restoration of Frank Capra classic ‘It Happened One Night’.” Shoot, November 18, 2013. Retrieved: April 16, 2014.
  8. Jump up^ Kotsabilas-Davis and Loy 1987, p. 94. Note: Loy described the first script she saw as “one of the worst [that] she had ever read.”
  9. Jump up^ Wiley and Bona 1987, p. 54.
  10. Jump up^ Weems, Erik. It Happened One Night – Frank Capra. eeweems.com, April 2013. Retrieved: April 1, 2015.
  11. Jump up^ Chandler 2006, p. 102.
  12. Jump up^ McBride 1992, p. 303.
  13. Jump up^ “Loretta Young 1999.” flickr.com. Retrieved: November 14, 2007.
  14. Jump up^ Karney 1995, p. 252.
  15. Jump up^ “All about Oscar.” britannica.com. Retrieved: April 1, 2015.
  16. Jump up to:a b Harris 2002, pp. 112–114.
  17. Jump up^ Capra 1971, p. 164.
  18. Jump up to:a b c Pace, Eric. “Claudette Colbert, unflappable heroine of screwball comedies, is dead at 92.” The New York Times, July 31, 1996, p. D21.
  19. Jump up^ “Review: ‘It Happened One Night’.” moviediva.com, April 2005. Retrieved: December 7, 2009.
  20. Jump up^ Tueth, p. 20.
  21. Jump up^ Hall, Mordaunt (February 23, 1934). “Movie Review – It Happened One Night”The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  22. Jump up^ “It Happened One Night”. Variety. New York. February 27, 1934. p. 17.
  23. Jump up^ “It Happened One Night”. Film Daily. New York. February 23, 1934. p. 6.
  24. Jump up to:a b Mizejewski, p. 11.
  25. Jump up^ Mosher, John C. (March 3, 1934). “The New Yorker“. New York. p. 67.
  26. Jump up^ Mizejewski, p. 12.
  27. Jump up^ McBride 1992, pp. 308–309.
  28. Jump up^ Sharon Fink. “Oscars: The Evolution of Fashion.” St. Petersburg Times, February 24, 2007.
  29. Jump up^ “Awards.” awardsdatabase.oscars.org. Retrieved: September 4, 2009.
  30. Jump up^ McKittrick, Rosemary. “Gable’s Gold: Auction cashes in on Hollywood idol.”liveauctiontalk.com. Retrieved: December 7, 2009.
  31. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Movies” (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  32. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Laughs” (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  33. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Passions” (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  34. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Movie Quotes Nominees” (PDF). Retrieved July 17,2016.
  35. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)” (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  36. Jump up^ “AFI’s 10 Top 10: Top 10 Romantic Comedy”American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  37. Jump up^ Altman, Randi. “Capra’s classic ‘It Happened One Night’ restored in 4K.”postperspective.com, November 2013. REtrieved: April 1, 2015.
  38. Jump up^ “The shirt off his back.” snopes.com, May 10, 2014. Retrieved: December 7, 2009.
  39. Jump up^ “Historical Timeline.” Archived December 8, 2012, at the Wayback MachineGreyhound. Retrieved: October 14, 2011.
  40. Jump up^ Dirks, Tim. “Review: ‘It Happened One Night’.” filmsite.org. Retrieved: December 7, 2009.
  41. Jump up^ “Why Stalin loved Tarzan and wanted John Wayne shot.” The Daily Telegraph, April 6, 2004. Retrieved: December 7, 2009.
  42. Jump up^ Shirer 1985, p. 588.
  43. Jump up^ “Way Out West (1937).” Filmsite Review. Retrieved: October 14, 2011.
  44. Jump up^ Crick 2009, p. 158.
  45. Jump up^ Dirks, Tim. “It Happened One Night (1934) .” Filmsite Movie Reviews. Retrieved: November 17, 2011.
  46. Jump up^ Granger, Susan. “Bandits.” All Reviews, 2001. Retrieved: October 14, 2011.
  47. Jump up^ imdb.com
  48. Jump up^ “Heartbreaker (2010) (original title: l’Arnacoeur)”. IMDb. Retrieved: April 18, 2012.
  49. Jump up^ McEldowney, Brooke. “9 Chickweed Lane.” gocomics.com. Retrieved: April 29, 2014.
  50. Jump up^ Guy, Randor (September 11, 2014). “It happened to be a hit!”The Hindu. Retrieved November 10, 2016.

Bibliography

  • Brown, Gene. Movie Time: A Chronology of Hollywood and the Movie Industry from Its Beginnings to the Present. New York: Macmillan, 1995. ISBN 0-02-860429-6.
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  • McBride, Joseph. Frank Capra: The Catastrophe of Success. New York: Touchstone Books, 1992. ISBN 0-671-79788-3.
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