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Harold Lloyd

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Harold Clayton Lloyd Sr. (April 20, 1893 – March 8, 1971) was an American actor, comedian, director, producer, screenwriter, and stunt performer who is best known for his silent comedy films.[1]

Lloyd ranks alongside Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton as one of the most popular and influential film comedians of the silent film era. Lloyd made nearly 200 comedy films, both silent and “talkies“, between 1914 and 1947. He is best known for his bespectacled “Glasses” character,[2][3] a resourceful, success-seeking go-getter who was perfectly in tune with 1920s-era United States.

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His films frequently contained “thrill sequences” of extended chase scenes and daredevil physical feats, for which he is best remembered today. Lloyd hanging from the hands of a clock high above the street (in reality a trick shot) in Safety Last! (1923) is one of the most enduring images in all of cinema.[4]

Lloyd did many dangerous stunts himself, despite having injured himself in August 1919 while doing publicity pictures for the Roach studio. An accident with a bomb mistaken as a prop resulted in the loss of the thumb and index finger of his right hand[5] (the injury was disguised on future films with the use of a special prosthetic glove, though the glove often did not go unnoticed).

Although Lloyd’s individual films were not as commercially successful as Chaplin’s on average, he was far more prolific (releasing 12 feature films in the 1920s while Chaplin released just four), and made more money overall ($15.7 million to Chaplin’s $10.5 million).[citation needed]

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Early life

Harold Clayton Lloyd was born on April 20, 1893 in Burchard, Nebraska, the son of James Darsie Lloyd and Sarah Elisabeth Fraser. His paternal great-grandparents were Welsh.[6]

In 1910, after his father had several business ventures fail, Lloyd’s parents divorced and his father moved with his son to San Diego, California. Lloyd had acted in theater since a child, but in California he began acting in one-reel film comedies around 1912.

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Young Harold Lloyd


Silent shorts and features

Lloyd worked with Thomas Edison‘s motion picture company, and his first role was a small part as a Yaqui Indian in the production of The Old Monk’s Tale.

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Harold Lloyd in The Old Monk’s Tale (J.Searle Dawley, 1913)

At the age of 20, Lloyd moved to Los Angeles, and took up roles in several Keystone comedies. He was also hired by Universal Studios as an extra and soon became friends with aspiring filmmaker Hal Roach.[7]

Lloyd began collaborating with Roach who had formed his own studio in 1913. Roach and Lloyd created “Lonesome Luke”, similar to and playing off the success of Charlie Chaplin films.[8]

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Hal Roach

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Harold Lloyd as Lonesome Luke

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Harold Lloyd as Lonesome Luke

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Harold Lloyd as Lonesome Luke

Lloyd hired Bebe Daniels as a supporting actress in 1914; the two of them were involved romantically and were known as “The Boy” and “The Girl”. In 1919, she left Lloyd to pursue her dramatic aspirations. Later that year, Lloyd replaced Daniels with Mildred Davis, whom he would later marry. Lloyd was tipped off by Hal Roach to watch Davis in a movie. Reportedly, the more Lloyd watched Davis the more he liked her. Lloyd’s first reaction in seeing her was that “she looked like a big French doll”.[9]

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Bebe Daniels

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Bebe Daniels

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Bebe Daniels

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Harold Lloyd and Bebe Daniels in Look Pleasant, Please (Alfred J Goulding, 1918)

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The Rolin Film Company – 1915

Bebe Daniels (1rst row, middle), Harold Lloyd (2nd Row, middle – in Lonesome Luke costume), Snub Pollard to his left, Hal Roach (3rd row, middle)

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Harold Lloyd and Bebe Daniels

By 1918, Lloyd and Roach had begun to develop his character beyond an imitation of his contemporaries. Harold Lloyd would move away from tragicomic personas, and portray an everyman with unwavering confidence and optimism.

The persona Lloyd referred to as his “Glass” character[10] (often named “Harold” in the silent films) was a much more mature comedy character with greater potential for sympathy and emotional depth, and was easy for audiences of the time to identify with.

The “Glass” character is said to have been created after Roach suggested that Harold was too handsome to do comedy without some sort of disguise. To create his new character Lloyd donned a pair of lensless horn-rimmed eyeglasses but wore normal clothing;[3] previously, he had worn a fake mustache and ill-fitting clothes as the Chaplinesque “Lonesome Luke”.

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Harold Lloyd – The Glass Character

“When I adopted the glasses,” he recalled in a 1962 interview with Harry Reasoner, “it more or less put me in a different category because I became a human being. He was a kid that you would meet next door, across the street, but at the same time I could still do all the crazy things that we did before, but you believed them. They were natural and the romance could be believable.”

Unlike most silent comedy personae, “Harold” was never typecast to a social class, but he was always striving for success and recognition. Within the first few years of the character’s debut, he had portrayed social ranks ranging from a starving vagrant in From Hand to Mouth to a wealthy socialite in Captain Kidd’s Kids.

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Harold Lloyd and Peggy Cartwright in From Hand to Mouth (Alfred J Goulding, Hal Roach, 1919)

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Poster for Captain Kidd’s Kids (Hal Roach, 1919)


Lloyd’s career was not all laughs, however. In August 1919, while filming Haunted Spooks (Alfred J Goulding, Hal Roach, 1919) posing for some promotional still photographs in the Los Angeles Witzel Photography Studio, he was seriously injured holding a prop bomb thought merely to be a smoke pot.

It exploded and mangled his hand, causing him to lose a thumb and forefinger. The blast was severe enough that the cameraman and prop director nearby were also seriously injured.

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Harold Lloyd and Mildred Davis in Haunted Spooks (Alfred J Goulding, Hal Roach, 1919)

Lloyd was in the act of lighting a cigarette from the fuse of the bomb when it exploded, also badly burning his face and chest and injuring his eye. Despite the proximity of the blast to his face, he retained his sight. As he recalled in 1930, “I thought I would surely be so disabled that I would never be able to work again. I didn’t suppose that I would have one five-hundredth of what I have now. Still I thought, ‘Life is worth while. Just to be alive.’ I still think so.”[11]

Beginning in 1921, Roach and Lloyd moved from shorts to feature-length comedies. These included the acclaimed Grandma’s Boy, which (along with Chaplin’s The Kid) pioneered the combination of complex character development and film comedy, the highly popular Safety Last!(1923), which cemented Lloyd’s stardom (and is the oldest film on the American Film Institute‘s List of 100 Most Thrilling Movies), and Why Worry? (1923).

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Poster for Grandma’s Boy (Fred C Newmayer, 1922)

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Harold Lloyd and Dick Sutherland in Grandma’s Boy (Fred C Newmayer, 1922)

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Poster for Safety Last (Fred C Newmeyer, 1923)

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Harold Lloyd in Safety Last (Fred C Newmeyer, 1923)

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Harold Lloyd in Why Worry? (Fred C Newmeyer, 1923)

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Harold Lloyd in Why Worry? (Fred C Newmeyer, 1923)

Lloyd and Roach parted ways in 1924, and Lloyd became the independent producer of his own films.

These included his most accomplished mature features Girl ShyThe Freshman (his highest-grossing silent feature), The Kid Brother, and Speedy, his final silent film. Welcome Danger (1929) was originally a silent film but Lloyd decided late in the production to remake it with dialogue.

All of these films were enormously successful and profitable, and Lloyd would eventually become the highest paid film performer of the 1920s.[12] They were also highly influential and still find many fans among modern audiences, a testament to the originality and film-making skill of Lloyd and his collaborators. From this success, he became one of the wealthiest and most influential figures in early Hollywood.

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Harold Lloyd and Jobyna Ralston (Fred C Newmeyer, 1924)

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Harold Lloyd and Jobyna Ralston (Fred C Newmeyer, 1924)

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Poster for The Freshman (Fred C Newmeyer, 1925)

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Harold Lloyd in The Freshman (Fred C Newmeyer, 1925)

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Poster for The Kid Brother (Ted Wilde, Harold Lloyd, 1927)

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Harold Lloyd and Jobyna Ralston in The Kid Brother (Ted Wilde, Harold Lloyd, 1927)

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Lobby card for Speedy (Ted Wilde, 1928)

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Harold Lloyd and Ann Christy in Speedy (Ted Wilde, 1928)

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Poster for Welcome Danger (Clyde Bruckman, Malcolm St.Clair, 1929)

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Harold Lloyd and Barbara Kent on the set of Welcome Danger (Clyde Bruckman, Malcolm St.Clair, 1929)

Talkies and transition

In 1924, Lloyd formed his own independent film production company, the Harold Lloyd Film Corporation, with his films distributed by Pathé and later Paramount and Twentieth Century-Fox. Lloyd was a founding member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

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 Harold Lloyd

Released a few weeks before the start of the Great DepressionWelcome Danger was a huge financial success, with audiences eager to hear Lloyd’s voice on film. Lloyd’s rate of film releases, which had been one or two a year in the 1920s, slowed to about one every two years until 1938.

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Promotional poster for Welcome Danger (Clyde Bruckman, Malcolm St.Clair, 1929)

The films released during this period were: Feet First, with a similar scenario to Safety Last which found him clinging to a skyscraper at the climax; Movie Crazy with Constance CummingsThe Cat’s-Paw, which was a dark political comedy and a big departure for Lloyd; and The Milky Way, which was Lloyd’s only attempt at the fashionable genre of the screwball comedy film.

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Lobby card for Feet First (Clyde Bruckman, Harold Lloyd, 1930)

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Poster for Movie Crazy (Clyde Bruckman, Harold Lloyd, 1932)

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Lobby card for The Cat’s Paw (Sam Taylor, Harold Lloyd, 1934)

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Lobby card for The Milky Way (Leo McCarey, Ray McCarey, 1936)

To this point the films had been produced by Lloyd’s company. However, his go-getting screen character was out of touch with Great Depression movie audiences of the 1930s. As the length of time between his film releases increased, his popularity declined, as did the fortunes of his production company. His final film of the decade, Professor Beware, was made by the Paramount staff, with Lloyd functioning only as actor and partial financier.

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Lobby card for Professor Beware (Elliott Nugent, 1938)

On March 23, 1937, Lloyd sold the land of his studio, Harold Lloyd Motion Picture Company, to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The location is now the site of the Los Angeles California Temple.[13]

Lloyd produced a few comedies for RKO Radio Pictures in the early 1940s but otherwise retired from the screen until 1947. He returned for an additional starring appearance in The Sin of Harold Diddlebock, an ill-fated homage to Lloyd’s career, directed by Preston Sturges and financed by Howard Hughes.

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Lobby card for The Sin of Harold Diddlebock AKA Mad Wednesday (Preston Sturges, 1947)

This film had the inspired idea of following Harold’s Jazz Age, optimistic character from The Freshman into the Great Depression years. Diddlebock opened with footage from The Freshman (for which Lloyd was paid a royalty of $50,000, matching his actor’s fee) and Lloyd was sufficiently youthful-looking to match the older scenes quite well.

Lloyd and Sturges had different conceptions of the material and fought frequently during the shoot; Lloyd was particularly concerned that while Sturges had spent three to four months on the script of the first third of the film, “the last two thirds of it he wrote in a week or less”.

The finished film was released briefly in 1947, then shelved by producer Hughes. Hughes issued a recut version of the film in 1951 through RKO under the title Mad Wednesday. Such was Lloyd’s disdain that he sued Howard Hughes, the California Corporation and RKO for damages to his reputation “as an outstanding motion picture star and personality”, eventually accepting a $30,000 settlement.

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German poster for The Sin of Harold Diddlebock AKA Mad Wednesday (Preston Sturges, 1947)

Radio and retirement

In October 1944, Lloyd emerged as the director and host of The Old Gold Comedy Theater, an NBC radio anthology series, after Preston Sturges, who had turned the job down, recommended him for it. The show presented half-hour radio adaptations of recently successful film comedies, beginning with Palm Beach Story with Claudette Colbert and Robert Young.

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Rehearsing the script for “The Palm Beach Story” are Robert Young, Harold Lloyd and Claudette Colbert – The Old Gold Comedy Theatre

Some saw The Old Gold Comedy Theater as being a lighter version of Lux Radio Theater, and it featured some of the best-known film and radio personalities of the day, including Fred AllenJune AllysonLucille BallRalph BellamyLinda DarnellSusan HaywardHerbert MarshallDick PowellEdward G. RobinsonJane Wyman, and Alan Young.

But the show’s half-hour format—which meant the material might have been truncated too severely—and Lloyd’s sounding somewhat ill at ease on the air for much of the season (though he spent weeks training himself to speak on radio prior to the show’s premiere, and seemed more relaxed toward the end of the series run) may have worked against it.

The Old Gold Comedy Theater ended in June 1945 with an adaptation of Tom, Dick and Harry, featuring June Allyson and Reginald Gardiner and was not renewed for the following season. Many years later, acetate discs of 29 of the shows were discovered in Lloyd’s home, and they now circulate among old-time radio collectors.

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Harold Lloyd and Dick Powell – The Old Gold Comedy Theatre

Lloyd remained involved in a number of other interests, including civic and charity work. Inspired by having overcome his own serious injuries and burns, he was very active as a Freemason and Shriner with the Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children.

He was a Past Potentate of Al-Malaikah Shrine in Los Angeles, and was eventually selected as Imperial Potentate of the Shriners of North America for the year 1949–50.[14] At the installation ceremony for this position on July 25, 1949, 90,000 people were present at Soldier Field, including then sitting U.S. President Harry S Truman, also a 33° Scottish Rite Mason.[15] In recognition of his services to the nation and Freemasonry, Bro. Lloyd was invested with the Rank and Decoration of Knight Commander Court of Honour in 1955 and coroneted an Inspector General Honorary, 33°, in 1965.

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Harold Lloyd in 1946, when he was appointed to the Shriners’ publicity committee

He appeared as himself on several television shows during his retirement, first on Ed Sullivan‘s variety show Toast of the Town June 5, 1949, and again on July 6, 1958. He appeared as the Mystery Guest on What’s My Line? on April 26, 1953, and twice on This Is Your Life: on March 10, 1954 for Mack Sennett, and again on December 14, 1955, on his own episode. During both appearances, Lloyd’s hand injury can clearly be seen.[16]

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Harold Lloyd on This is Your Life in 1950’s

Lloyd studied colors and microscopy, and was very involved with photography, including 3D photography and color film experiments. Some of the earliest 2-color Technicolor tests were shot at his Beverly Hills home (These are included as extra material in the Harold Lloyd Comedy Collection DVD Box Set).

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Harold Lloyd’s 3 D Photography Album

He became known for his nude photographs of models, such as Bettie Page and stripper Dixie Evans, for a number of men’s magazines. He also took photos of Marilyn Monroe lounging at his pool in a bathing suit, which were published after her death. In 2004, his granddaughter Suzanne produced a book of selections from his photographs, Harold Lloyd’s Hollywood Nudes in 3D! (ISBN 1-57912-394-5).

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Harold Lloyd’s 3 D Photography Album

Lloyd also provided encouragement and support for a number of younger actors, such as Debbie ReynoldsRobert Wagner, and particularly Jack Lemmon, whom Harold declared as his own choice to play him in a movie of his life and work.

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Marilyn Monroe photographed by Harold Lloyd

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Marilyn Monroe photographed by Harold Lloyd during a photo session with Philippe Halsman, 1952

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Marilyn Monroe photographed by Harold Lloyd

Renewed interest

Lloyd kept copyright control of most of his films and re-released them infrequently after his retirement.

Lloyd did not grant cinematic release because most theaters could not accommodate an organist, and Lloyd did not wish his work to be accompanied by a pianist: “I just don’t like pictures played with pianos.

We never intended them to be played with pianos.” Similarly, his features were never shown on television as Lloyd’s price was high: “I want $300,000 per picture for two showings. That’s a high price, but if I don’t get it, I’m not going to show it. They’ve come close to it, but they haven’t come all the way up”.

As a consequence, his reputation and public recognition suffered in comparison with Chaplin and Keaton, whose work has generally been more available. Lloyd’s film character was so intimately associated with the 1920s era that attempts at revivals in 1940s and 1950s were poorly received, when audiences viewed the 1920s (and silent film in particular) as old-fashioned.

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Harold Lloyd and Mildred Davis in 1935

In the early 1960s, Lloyd produced two compilation films, featuring scenes from his old comedies, Harold Lloyd’s World of Comedy and The Funny Side of Life.

The first film was premiered at the 1962 Cannes Film Festival, where Lloyd was fêted as a major rediscovery. The renewed interest in Lloyd helped restore his status among film historians.

Throughout his later years he screened his films for audiences at special charity and educational events, to great acclaim, and found a particularly receptive audience among college audiences: “Their whole response was tremendous because they didn’t miss a gag; anything that was even a little subtle, they got it right away.”

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Lobby cards for Harold Lloyd’s World of Comedy (Harold Lloyd, 1962)

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Poster for The Funny Side of Life (Harry Kerwin, 1963)

Following his death, and after extensive negotiations, most of his feature films were leased to Time-Life Films in 1974.

As Tom Dardis confirms: “Time-Life prepared horrendously edited musical-sound-track versions of the silent films, which are intended to be shown on TV at sound speed [24 frames per second], and which represent everything that Harold feared would happen to his best films”.[citation needed]

Time-Life released the films as half-hour television shows, with two clips per show. These were often near-complete versions of the early two-reelers, but also included extended sequences from features such as Safety Last! (terminating at the clock sequence) and Feet First (presented silent, but with Walter Scharf‘s score from Lloyd’s own 1960s re-release).

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Belgian poster for Safety Last (Fred C Newmeyer, Sam Taylor, 1923)

Time-Life released several of the feature films more or less intact, also using some of Scharf’s scores which had been commissioned by Lloyd. The Time-Life clips series included a narrator rather than intertitles. Various narrators were used internationally: the English-language series was narrated by Henry Corden.

The Time-Life series was frequently repeated by the BBC in the United Kingdom during the 1980s, and in 1990 a Thames Television documentary, Harold Lloyd: The Third Genius was produced by Kevin Brownlow and David Gill, following two similar series based on Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton.[17] Composer Carl Davis wrote a new score for Safety Last! which he performed live during a showing of the film with the Royal Scottish National Orchestra to great acclaim in 1993.[18]

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Harold Lloyd, The Third Genius (Kevin Brownlow, David Gill, 1990)

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Harold Lloyd, The Third Genius (Kevin Brownlow, David Gill, 1990) – VHS Release

The Brownlow and Gill documentary was shown as part of the PBS series American Masters, and created a renewed interest in Lloyd’s work in the United States, but the films were largely unavailable.

In 2002, the Harold Lloyd Trust re-launched Harold Lloyd with the publication of the book Harold Lloyd: Master Comedian by Jeffrey Vance and Suzanne Lloyd[19][20] and a series of feature films and short subjects called “The Harold Lloyd Classic Comedies” produced by Jeffrey Vance and executive produced by Suzanne Lloyd for Harold Lloyd Entertainment.

Harold Lloyd - by Witzel

The new cable television and home video versions of Lloyd’s great silent features and many shorts were remastered with new orchestral scores by Robert Israel. These versions are frequently shown on the Turner Classic Movies(TCM) cable channel.

A DVD collection of these restored or remastered versions of his feature films and important short subjects was released by New Line Cinema in partnership with the Harold Lloyd Trust in 2005, along with theatrical screenings in the US, Canada, and Europe. Criterion Collection has subsequently acquired the home video rights to the Lloyd library, and have released Safety Last!,[21] The Freshman,[22] and Speedy.[23]

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Safety Last – Criterion Collection Blu Ray Special Edition

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The Freshman – Criterion Collection – Dual Format Edition

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The Freshman – Criterion Collection – Blu Ray Special Edition

In the June 2006 Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra Silent Film Gala program book for Safety Last!, film historian Jeffrey Vance stated that Robert A. Golden, Lloyd’s assistant director, routinely doubled for Harold Lloyd between 1921 and 1927. According to Vance, Golden doubled Lloyd in the bit with Harold shimmy shaking off the building’s ledge after a mouse crawls up his trousers.[24]

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Harold Lloyd Comedy Collection – DVD Release

Personal life

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Harold Lloyd and Mildred Davis in a publicity photo for High And Dizzy (Hal Roach, 1920)
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Harold Lloyd, Mildred Davis and Douglas Fairbanks 

They had two children together: Gloria Lloyd (1923-2012)[26][27] and Harold Clayton Lloyd Jr. (1931–1971).[28] They also adopted Gloria Freeman (1924—1986) in September 1930, whom they renamed Marjorie Elizabeth Lloyd but was known as “Peggy” for most of her life.

Lloyd discouraged Davis from continuing her acting career. He later relented but by that time her career momentum was lost. Davis died from a heart attack in 1969, two years before Lloyd’s death.

Though her real age was a guarded secret, a family spokesperson at the time indicated she was 66 years old. Lloyd’s son was gay and, according to Annette D’Agostino Lloyd (no relation) in the book Harold Lloyd: Master Comedian, Harold Sr. took this in good spirit. Harold Jr. died from complications of a stroke three months after his father.

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Harold Lloyd and Mildred Davis

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The Lloyds in 1936. From left to right: Peggy and Harold Jr., Harold, Gloria, and Mildred

In 1925, at the height of his movie career, Lloyd entered into Freemasonry at the Alexander Hamilton Lodge No. 535 of Hollywood, advancing quickly through both the York Rite and Scottish Rite, and then joined Al Malaikah Shrine in Los Angeles. He took the degrees of the Royal Arch with his father. In 1926, he became a 32° Scottish Rite Mason in the Valley of Los Angeles, California. He was vested with the Rank and Decoration of Knight Commander Court of Honor (KCCH) and eventually with the Inspector General Honorary, 33rd degree.


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Harold Lloyd and Freemasons

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Harold Lloyd at Al Malaikah Shrine in Los Angeles

Lloyd’s Beverly Hills home, “Greenacres“, was built in 1926–1929, with 44 rooms, 26 bathrooms, 12 fountains, 12 gardens, and a nine-hole golf course. A portion of Lloyd’s personal inventory of his silent films (then estimated to be worth $2 million) was destroyed in August 1943 when his film vault caught fire. Seven firemen were overcome while inhaling chlorine gas from the blaze.

Lloyd himself was saved by his wife, who dragged him to safety outdoors after he collapsed at the door of the film vault. The fire spared the main house and outbuildings. After attempting to maintain the home as a museum of film history, as Lloyd had wished, the Lloyd family sold it to a developer in 1975.

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Harold Lloyd house fire

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Harold Lloyd Estate

The grounds were subsequently subdivided but the main house and the estate’s principal gardens remain and are frequently used for civic fundraising events and as a filming location, appearing in films like Westworld and The Loved One. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Greenacres was built in the 1920s in Beverly Hills, one of Los Angeles’ all-white planned communities.[29] The area had restrictive covenants prohibiting non-whites (this also included Jews[30]) from living there unless they were in the employment of a white resident (typically as a domestic servant).[31]:57

In 1940, Lloyd supported a neighborhood improvement association in Beverly Hills that attempted to enforce the all-white covenant in court after a number of black actors and businessmen had begun buying properties in the area.

However, in his decision, federal judge Thurmond Clarke dismissed the action stating that it was time that “members of the Negro race are accorded, without reservations or evasions, the full rights guaranteed to them under the 14th amendment.”[32] In 1948 the United States Supreme Court declared in Shelley v. Kraemer that all racially restrictive covenants in the United States were unenforceable.[33]


Lloyd died at age 77 from prostate cancer on March 8, 1971, at his Greenacres home in Beverly Hills, California.[12][34][35]

He was interred in a crypt in the Great Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California.[36] His former co-star Bebe Daniels died eight days after him and his son Harold Lloyd Jr.died three months after him.[citation needed]

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The crypt of Harold Lloyd, in the Great Mausoleum, Forest Lawn Glendale


In 1927, his was only the fourth concrete ceremony at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, preserving his handprints, footprints, and autograph, along with the outline of his famed glasses (which were actually a pair of sunglasses with the lenses removed).[37][38] The ceremony took place directly in front of the Hollywood Masonic Temple, which was the meeting place of the Masonic lodge to which he belonged.[39]

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Harold Lloyd hand and foot prints

Lloyd was honoured in 1960 for his contribution to motion pictures with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 1503 Vine Street.[40] In 1994, he was honoured with his image on a United States postage stamp designed by caricaturist Al Hirschfeld.[41][42]

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In 1953, Lloyd received an Academy Honorary Award for being a “master comedian and good citizen”. The second citation was a snub to Chaplin, who at that point had fallen foul of McCarthyism and had his entry visa to the United States revoked. Regardless of the political overtones, Lloyd accepted the award in good spirit.

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See also


  1. Jump up^ Obituary Variety, March 10, 1971, page 55.
  2. Jump up^ Austerlitz, Saul (2010). Another Fine Mess: A History of American Film Comedy. Chicago Review Press. p. 28. ISBN 1569767637.
  3. Jump up to:a b D’Agostino Lloyd, Annette. “Why Harold Lloyd Is Important”. haroldlloyd.com. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
  4. Jump up^ Slide, Anthony (September 27, 2002). Silent Players: A Biographical and Autobiographical Study of 100 Silent Film Actors and Actresses. Univ. Press of Kentucky. p. 221. ISBN 978-0813122496.
  5. Jump up^ An American Comedy; Lloyd and Stout; 1928; page 129
  6. Jump up^ “Comedy in the 1920’s – 1950’s”alphadragondesign.com. Retrieved April 13,2015.
  7. Jump up^ “Encyclopedia of the Great Plains – Lloyd, Harold (1893-1971)”unl.edu. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  8. Jump up^ “Hal Roach article”Silentsaregolden.com. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  9. Jump up^ Pawlak, Debra Ann (January 15, 2011). Bringing Up Oscar: The Story of the Men and Women Who Founded the Academy. New York: Pegasus Books. p. 62. ISBN 978-1605981376.
  10. Jump up^ “Harold Lloyd biography”. haroldlloyd.com. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
  11. Jump up^ Hall, Gladys (October 1930). “Discoveries About Myself”Motion Picture Magazine. New York: Brewster Publications. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  12. Jump up to:a b “Died”Time. March 22, 1971. Retrieved June 8, 2008Harold Lloyd, 77, comedian whose screen image of horn-rimmed incompetence made him Hollywood’s highest-paid star in the 1920s; of cancer; in Hollywood. He usually played a feckless Mr. Average who triumphed over misfortune. ‘My character represented the white-collar middle class that felt frustrated but was always fighting to overcome its shortcomings,’ he once explained. Lloyd usually did his own stunt work, as in Safety Last (1923), in which he dangled from a clock high above the street; he was protected only by a wooden platform two floors below.
  13. Jump up^ “Los Angeles California Temple”The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved June 8, 2008The land for the Los Angeles California Temple was purchased from Harold Lloyd Motion Picture Company on March 23, 1937.
  14. Jump up^ “Harold LLoyd” Archived January 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. “In 1949, Harold’s face graced the cover of TIME Magazine as the Imperial Potentate of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, their highest-ranking position. He devoted an entire year to visiting 130 temples across the country giving speeches for over 700,000 Shriners. The last twenty years of his life he worked tirelessly for the twenty-two Shriner Hospitals for Children and in the 1960s, he was named President and Chairman of the Board.”
  15. Jump up^ Lloyd, Harold. “Phoenix Masonry Masonic Museum”Masonic Research. Phoenix Masonry. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
  16. Jump up^ “Harold Lloyd”IMDB. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
  17. Jump up^ Documentary: Harold Lloyd — The Third Genius.
  18. Jump up^ https://issuu.com/fm_fortissimo/docs/faber_silents_catalogue_2016
  19. Jump up^ Loos, Ted (2002-07-21). “Books in Brief – Nonfiction – A Matter of Attitude”New York Times. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  20. Jump up^ “Behind the Laughter”latimes. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  21. Jump up^ “Safety Last!”The Criterion Collection. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  22. Jump up^ “The Freshman”The Criterion Collection. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  23. Jump up^ “Speedy”The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
  24. Jump up^ “”Safety Last!: Notes on the Making of the Film” : Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra Silent Film Gala program book, June 3, 2006 revised and reprinted as “Safety Last!” San Francisco Silent Film Festival program book, July 18–21, 2013″Silentfilm.org. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  25. Jump up^ Los Angeles, California, County Marriages 1850-1952
  26. Jump up^ “Gloria Lloyd, daughter of Harold Lloyd, dies”Variety. February 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-11.
  27. Jump up^ Brownlow, Kevin (27 February 2012). “Obituaries: Gloria Lloyd: Actress who had a gilded life as Harold Lloyd’s daughter”The Independent. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  28. Jump up^ “Harold Lloyd Jr. Dies. Actor, Son of Comedy Star”The New York Times. June 10, 1971. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
  29. Jump up^ James W. Loewen (September 29, 2005). Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension Of American Racism. The New Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-59558-674-2. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  30. Jump up^ Andrew Wiese (December 15, 2005). Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century. University of Chicago Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-226-89625-0. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  31. Jump up^ Michael Gross (November 1, 2011). Unreal Estate: Money, Ambition, and the Lust for Land in Los Angeles. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7679-3265-3. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  32. Jump up^ Stephen Grant Meyer (October 1, 2001). As Long As They Don’t Move Next Door: Segregation and Racial Conflict in American Neighborhoods. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8476-9701-4. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  33. Jump up^ Steve Sheppard (April 1, 2007). The History of Legal Education in the United States: Commentaries And Primary Sources. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 948n. ISBN 978-1-58477-690-1. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  34. Jump up^ “Harold Lloyd, Bespectacled Film Comic, Dies of Cancer at 77”Los Angeles Times. March 9, 1971. Retrieved June 8, 2008Comedian Harold Lloyd, 77, who bumbled through more than 300 films as a bespectacled victim of life’s difficulties, died of cancer Monday at his Beverly Hills home.
  35. Jump up^ Illson, Murray (March 9, 1971). “Horn-Rims His Trademark; Harold Lloyd, Screen Comedian, Dies at 77”The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2008A pair of inexpensive, horn-rimmed eyeglass frames without lenses, the shy expression of a somewhat bewildered adolescent and a single-track ambition made Harold Clayton Lloyd the highest-paid screen actor in Hollywood’s golden age of the nineteen twenties.
  36. Jump up^ Harold Lloyd at Find a Grave
  37. Jump up^ “Harold Lloyd’s Prints At Mann’s Chinese Theatre”Getty Images. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  38. Jump up^ Bengtson, John (2011-05-21). “Harold Lloyd – lasting impressions at Grauman’s Chinese”Chaplin-Keaton-Lloyd film locations (and more). Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  39. Jump up^ Ridenour, Al (2002-05-02). “A Chamber of Secrets”Los Angeles Times. pp. 1–2. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  40. Jump up^ “Harold Lloyd | Hollywood Walk of Fame”http://www.walkoffame.com. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  41. Jump up^ Hirschfeld, Al (2015). The Hirschfeld Century: Portrait of an Artist and His Age. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 291, 293. ISBN 9781101874974OCLC 898029267.
  42. Jump up^ McAllister, Bill (1994-04-15). “Hirschfeld’s ‘Silent’ Stars”The Washington PostISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-06-27.

harold lloyd - pub still for feet first 1930

Further reading

  • Agee, James (2000) [1958]. “Comedy’s Greatest Era” from Life magazine (9/5/1949), reprinted in Agee on FilmMcDowell, Obolensky, Modern Library.
  • Bengtson, John. (2011). Silent Visions: Discovering Early Hollywood and New York Through the Films of Harold Lloyd. Santa Monica Press. ISBN 978-1-59580-057-2.
  • Brownlow, Kevin (1976) [1968]. “Harold Lloyd” from The Parade’s Gone By. Alfred A. Knopf, University of California Press.
  • Byron, Stuart; Weis, Elizabeth (1977). The National Society of Film Critics on Movie Comedy. Grossman/Viking.
  • Cahn, William (1964). Harold Lloyd’s World of Comedy. Duell, Sloane & Pearce.
  • D’Agostino, Annette M. (1994). Harold Lloyd: A Bio-Bibliography. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-28986-7.
  • Dale, Alan (2002). Comedy is a Man in Trouble: Slapstick In American Movies. University of Minnesota Press.
  • Dardis, Tom (1983). Harold Lloyd: The Man on the Clock. Viking. ISBN 0-14-007555-0.
  • Durgnat, Raymond (1970). “Self-Help with a Smile” from The Crazy Mirror: Hollywood Comedy and the American Image. Dell.
  • Everson, William K. (1978). American Silent Film. Oxford University Press.
  • Gilliatt, Penelope (1973). “Physicists” from Unholy Fools: Wits, Comics, Disturbers of the Peace. Viking.
  • Hayes, Suzanne Lloyd (ed.), (1992). 3-D Hollywood with Photography by Harold Lloyd. Simon & Schuster.
  • Kerr, Walter (1990) [1975]. The Silent Clowns. Alfred A. Knopf, Da Capo Press.
  • Lacourbe, Roland (1970). Harold Lloyd. Paris: Editions Seghers.
  • Lahue, Kalton C. (1966). World of Laughter: The Motion Picture Comedy Short, 1910–1930. University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Lloyd, Annette D’Agostino (2003). The Harold Lloyd Encyclopedia. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1514-2.
  • Lloyd, Annette D’Agostino (2009). Harold Lloyd: Magic in a Pair of Horn-Rimmed Glasses. BearManor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-332-6.
  • Lloyd, Harold; Stout, W. W. (1971) [1928]. An American Comedy. Dover.
  • Lloyd, Suzanne (2004). Harold Lloyd’s Hollywood Nudes in 3-D. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 978-1-57912-394-9.
  • Maltin, Leonard (1978). The Great Movie Comedians. Crown Publishers.
  • Mast, Gerald (1979) [1973]. The Comic Mind: Comedy and the Movies. University of Chicago Press.
  • McCaffrey, Donald W. (1968). 4 Great Comedians: Chaplin, Lloyd, Keaton, Langdon. A.S. Barnes.
  • McCaffrey, Donald W. (1976). Three Classic Silent Screen Comedies Starring Harold Lloyd. Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-1455-8.
  • Mitchell, Glenn (2003). A–Z of Silent Film Comedy. B.T. Batsford Ltd.
  • Reilly, Adam (1977). Harold Lloyd: The King of Daredevil Comedy. Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-601940-X.
  • Robinson, David (1969). The Great Funnies: A History of Film Comedy. E.P. Dutton.
  • Schickel, Richard (1974). Harold Lloyd: The Shape of Laughter. New York Graphic Society. ISBN 0-8212-0595-1.
  • Vance, Jeffrey; Lloyd, Suzanne (2002). Harold Lloyd: Master Comedian. Harry N Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-1674-6.

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Charley Chase

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Charley Chase promotional photo 1920’s

Charley Chase (born Charles Joseph Parrott, October 20, 1893 – June 20, 1940) was an American comedian, actor, screenwriter and film director, best known for his work in Hal Roach short film comedies. He was the older brother of comedian/director James Parrott.

Life and career

Born Charles Joseph Parrott in Baltimore, Maryland, Charley Chase began performing in vaudeville as a teenager and started his career in films by working at the Christie Film Company in 1912.[1]

He then moved to Keystone Studios, where he began appearing in bit parts in the Mack Sennett films, including those of Charlie Chaplin.

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Poster for His New Profession (Charles Chaplin, 1914) with Chaplin and Charley Chase

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His New Profession (Charles Chaplin, 1914) with Chaplin and Charley Chase

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His New Profession (Charles Chaplin, 1914) with Chaplin and Charley Chase

By 1915 he was playing juvenile leads in the Keystones, and directing some of the films as Charles Parrott. His Keystone credentials were good enough to get him steady work as a comedy director with other companies; he directed many of Chaplin imitator Billy West‘s comedies, which featured a young Oliver Hardy as villain.

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Charley Chase, Billy West and Oliver Hardy in The Hobbo (Arvid L Gillstrom, 1917)

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Charley Chase, Billy West and Oliver Hardy in Playmates (Charley Chase, 1918)

He worked at L-KO Kompany during its final months of existence. Then in 1920, Chase began working as a film director for Hal Roach Studios.

Among his notable early works for Roach was supervising the first entries in the Our Gang series, as well as directing several films starring Lloyd Hamilton; like many other silent comedians, Chase is reported to have regarded Hamilton’s work as a major influence on that of his own. Chase became director-general of the Hal Roach studio in late 1921, supervising the production of all the Roach series except the Harold Lloyd comedies.

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Charley Chase and Our Gang 1920s – Hal Roach Studios

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Moonshine (Charley Chase, 1920) Charley Chase with Lloyd Hamilton

Following Lloyd’s departure from the studio in 1923, Chase moved back in front of the camera with his own series of shorts, adopting the screen name Charley Chase.

Chase was a master of the comedy of embarrassment, and he played either hapless young businessmen or befuddled husbands in dozens of situation comedies. His screen persona was that of a pleasant young man with a dapper mustacheand ordinary street clothes; this set him apart from the clownish makeups and crazy costumes used by his contemporaries. His earliest Roach shorts cast him as a hard-luck fellow named “Jimmie Jump” in one-reel (10-minute) comedies.

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Charley Chase as Jimmy Jump in April Fool (Ralph Ceder, 1924)

The first Chase series was successful and expanded to two reels (20 minutes); this would become the standard length for Chase comedies, apart from a few three-reel featurettes later.

Direction of the Chase series was taken over by Leo McCarey, who in collaboration with Chase formed the comic style of the series—an emphasis on characterization and farce instead of knockabout slapstick. Some of Chase’s starring shorts of the 1920s, particularly Mighty Like a MooseCrazy Like a FoxFluttering Hearts, and Limousine Love, are often considered to be among the finest in silent comedy.

Chase remained the guiding hand behind the films, assisting anonymously with the directing, writing, and editing.

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Mighty Like A Moose (Leo McCarey, 1926) with Charley Chase, Vivien Oakland and Ann Howe

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Mighty Like A Moose (Leo McCarey, 1926) with Charley Chase, Vivien Oakland and Ann Howe

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Crazy Like A Fox (Leo McCarey, 1926) Charley Chase with Martha Sleeper and William V Mong

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Crazy Like A Fox (Leo McCarey, 1926) Charley Chase with Martha Sleeper and William V Mong

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Fluttering Hearts (James Parrot, 1927) Charley Chase with Oliver Hardy, Martha Sleeper and Eugene Paltette

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Fluttering Hearts (James Parrot, 1927) Charley Chase with Oliver Hardy, Martha Sleeper and Eugene Paltette

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Limousine Love (Fred Guiol, 1928) Charley Chase with Edna Marion, Edgar Kennedy and Viola Richard 

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Limousine Love (Fred Guiol, 1928) Charley Chase with Edna Marion, Edgar Kennedy and Viola Richard 

Chase moved with ease into sound films in 1929, and became one of the most popular film comedians of the period.[2]

He continued to be very prolific in the talkie era, often putting his fine singing voice on display and including his humorous, self-penned songs in his comedy shorts. The two-reeler The Pip from Pittsburg, released in 1931 and co-starring Thelma Todd, is one of the most celebrated Charley Chase comedies of the sound era.[3]

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The Pip From Pittsburg (James Parrott, 1931) Charley Chase with Thelma Todd and Dorothy Granger 

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The Pip From Pittsburg (James Parrott, 1931) Charley Chase with Thelma Todd and Dorothy Granger 

Throughout the decade, the Charley Chase shorts continued to stand alongside Laurel and Hardy and Our Gang as the core output of the Roach studio. Chase was featured in the Laurel and Hardy feature Sons of the Desert; Laurel and Hardy made cameo appearances as hitchhikers in Chase’s On the Wrong Trek.

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Sons of the Desert (William A Seiter, 1933) Charley Chase with Laurel and Hardy, Mae Busch and Dorothy Christie

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Sons of the Desert (William A Seiter, 1933) Charley Chase with Laurel and Hardy, Mae Busch and Dorothy Christie

On the Wrong Trek was supposed to be the final Charley Chase short subject; by 1936 producer Hal Roach was now concentrating on making ambitious feature films.

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On the Wrong Treck (Charley Chase and Harold Law, 1936) Charley Chase with Rosina Lawrence, Clarence Wilson and Laurel and Hardy

Chase played a character role in the Patsy Kelly feature Kelly the Second, and starred in a feature-length comedy called Bank Night, lampooning the popular Bank Night phenomenon of the 1930s.

Chase’s feature was plagued with a host of production problems and legalities, and the film was drastically edited down to two reels and finally released as one last Charley Chase short, Neighborhood House. Chase was then dismissed from the Roach studio.

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Kelly the Second (Gus Meins, 1936) Charley Chase with Patsy Kelly and Guin Williams

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Neighborhood House (Charley Chase and Harold Law 1936) Charley Chase with Rosina Lawrence and George Meeker

Later years and death

In 1937, Chase began working at Columbia Pictures, where he spent the rest of his career starring in his own series of two-reel comedies, as well as producing and directing other Columbia comedies, including those of The Three Stooges and Andy Clyde.

He directed the Stooges’ classic Violent Is the Word for Curly (1938); although he is often credited with writing the film’s song “Swinging the Alphabet“,[4] the tune actually originates with 19th-century songwriter Septimus Winner.

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Violent is the Word For Curly (Charley Chase, 1938) with Three Stooges

Recent research asserts that the Chase family’s maid introduced the song to Chase and taught it to his daughters.[5] Chase’s own shorts at Columbia favored broader sight gags and more slapstick than his earlier, subtler work, although he does sing in two of the Columbias, The Grand Hooter and The Big Squirt (both 1937).

Many of Chase’s Columbia short subjects were strong enough to be remade in the 1940s with other comedians; Chase’s The Heckler (1940) was remade with Shemp Howardas Mr. Noisy (1946) while The Nightshirt Bandit (1938) was remade with Andy Clyde as Go Chase Yourself (1948) and again in 1956 as Pardon My Nightshirt.

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Charley Chase promotional material 1920s

Chase reportedly suffered from depression and alcoholism for most of his professional career, and his tumultuous lifestyle began to take a serious toll on his health. His hair had turned prematurely gray, and he dyed it jet-black for his Columbia comedies.

His younger brother, comedy writer-director James Parrott, had personal problems resulting from a drug treatment, and died in 1939. Chase was devastated. He had refused to give his brother money to support his drug habit, and friends knew he felt responsible for Parrott’s death.

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James Parrott with Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy

He coped with the loss by throwing himself into his work and by drinking more heavily than ever, despite doctors’ warnings. The stress ultimately caught up with him; just over a year after his brother’s death, Charley Chase died of a heart attack in Hollywood, California on June 20, 1940. He is interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery near his wife Bebe Eltinge in Glendale, California.[6][7] Brother James Parrott is also interred at Forest Lawn.[8]

For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Charley Chase received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6630 Hollywood Boulevard on February 8, 1960.[9][10]

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Renewed interest

Since the 1990s, there has been a revival of interest in the films of Charley Chase, due in large part to the increased availability of his comedies. An extensive website researching his life and work, The World of Charley Chase, was created in 1996, and a biography, Smile When the Raindrops Fall, was published in 1998.

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Smile When The Raindrops Fall was the theme song of Whispering Whoopee, a two-reeler from 1930, starring Charley Chase

Chase’s sound comedies for Hal Roach were briefly televised in the late 1990s on the short-lived American cable network the Odyssey Channel. Retrospectives of Chase’s work organized by The Silent Clowns Film Series were held in 1999, 2001, 2006, and 2008 in New York City.

A marathon of selected Charley Chase shorts from the silent era was broadcast in 2005 on the American cable television network Turner Classic Movies. In late 2006, Turner Classic Movies began to air Charley Chase’s sound-era comedies. In January 2011, several of his sound shorts were featured during Turner Classic Movies’ tribute to Hal Roach Studios.

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In 2007, Mighty Like a Moose (1926) was selected for inclusion in the Library of Congress’s National Film Registry, solidifying its reputation as one of the most celebrated comedies of the silent era and cementing Chase’s status as a pioneer of early film comedy.[11]

Kino International released two Charley Chase DVD volumes in 2004 and 2005 for their Slapstick Symposium series. The films came from archives and collectors around the world. In July 2009, VCI Entertainment released Becoming Charley Chase, a DVD boxed set of Charley Chase’s early silent films.

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Kino Lorber Charley Chase Collection on DVD

Columbia Pictures has prepared digital restorations of its twenty Charley Chase shorts, in the same manner as its Buster Keaton DVD restorations. On January 1, 2013 Sony Home Entertainment released Charley Chase Shorts Volume 1, part of its “Columbia Choice Collection” MOD DVD-R library. The 1-disc release contains eight of Chase’s starring shorts, and one Smith & Dale short which he directed, A Nag in the Bag (1938). On November 5, 2013 Sony Home Entertainment released Charley Chase Shorts Volume 2, another in their MOD DVD-R series, which contained the remaining twelve Chase shorts.

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Charley Chase MGM promotional photo

Selected filmography

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Release poster for Why Men Work (Leo McCarey, 1924)

See also


  1. Jump up^ Anthony, Brian and Edmonds, Andy (1998). Smile When the Raindrops Fall: The Story of Charley Chase. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 23. ISBN 0-8108-3377-8
  2. Jump up^ Lahue, Kalton C. and Gill, Samuel (1970). Clown Princes and Court Jesters. A.S. Barnes and Company, 94.
  3. Jump up^ Solan, Yair. “Many Big Squawks.” The World of Charley Chase. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2009-07-12.
  4. Jump up^ Okuda, Ted and Watz, Edward (1986). The Columbia Comedy Shorts: Two-Reel Hollywood Film Comedies, 1933–1958. McFarland & Company, Inc., 27. ISBN 0-7864-0577-5.
  5. Jump up^ Finegan, Richard. “Swingin’ the Alphabet Composer Finally Identified.” The Three Stooges Journal (Winter 2005): 4.
  6. Jump up^ “Charley Chase (1893–1940) – Find A Grave Memorial”http://www.findagrave.com. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  7. Jump up^ “BeBe Chase (1888–1948) – Find A Grave Memorial”http://www.findagrave.com. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  8. Jump up^ “James Parrott (1897–1939) – Find A Grave Memorial”http://www.findagrave.com. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  9. Jump up^ “Charley Chase | Hollywood Walk of Fame”http://www.walkoffame.com. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  10. Jump up^ “Charley Chase”latimes.com. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  11. Jump up^ “National Film Registry 2007.” https://www.loc.gov/film/nfr2007.html
  12. Jump up^ ARABIAN TIGHTS(1933)“, Turner Classic Movies

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Lady To Love, A (1930)

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A Lady To Love (1930)

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A Lady to Love is a 1930 American drama film directed by Victor Sjöström and written by Sidney Howard. The film stars Vilma BánkyEdward G. RobinsonRobert AmesRichard Carle and Lloyd Ingraham. The film was released on February 28, 1930, by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.[1][2]


Tony, a prosperous Italian vineyardist in California, advertises for a young wife, passing off a photograph of his handsome hired man, Buck, as himself. Lena, a San Francisco waitress, takes up the offer, and though she is disillusioned upon discovering the truth, she goes through with the marriage because of her desire to have a home and partially because of her weakness for Buck, whose efforts to take her away from Tony confirm her love for her husband.

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  1. Jump up^ “A Lady to Love (1930) – Overview – TCM.com”Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  2. Jump up^ “A Lady To Love”TV Guide. Retrieved 11 November 2014.

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Film Collectors Corner

Watch A Lady To Love Now – You Tube Instant Video

Blu Ray

Not released on Blu Ray 



Not released on DVD

Rain ( 1932)

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Rain (1932)

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Director: Lewis Milestone

Cast: Joan Crawford, Walter Houston, Fred Howard, Ben Hendricks Jr., William Gargan, Mary Shaw, Guy Kibbee,  Beulah Bondi, Matt Moore

94 min

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Rain is a 1932 South Seas drama film directed by Lewis Milestone with portions filmed at Santa Catalina Island, California. The pre-Code film stars Joan Crawford as prostitute Sadie Thompson and features Walter Huston as a conflicted missionary who wants to reform Sadie, but whose own morals start decaying. Crawford was loaned out by MGM to United Artists for this film.

The plot of the film is based on the 1922 play Rain by John Colton and Clemence Randolph, which in turn was based on the short story “Miss Thompson” (later retitled “Rain”) by W. Somerset Maugham.

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Actress Jeanne Eagels had played the role on stage. Other movie versions of the story include: a 1928 silent film titled Sadie Thompson starring Gloria Swanson, and the heavily sanitized Miss Sadie Thompson (1953), which starred Rita Hayworth.

In 1960, the film entered the public domain in the USA due to the copyright claimant’s failure to renew the copyright registration in the 28th year after publication.[1]

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A westbound ship en route to Apia, Samoa, is temporarily stranded at nearby Pago Pago due to a possible cholera outbreak on board. Among the passengers are Alfred Davidson, a self-righteous missionary, his wife, and Sadie Thompson, a prostitute. Thompson passes the time partying and drinking with the American Marines stationed on the island. Sergeant Tim O’Hara, nicknamed by Sadie as “Handsome”, falls in love with her.

Her wild behavior soon becomes more than the Davidsons can stand and Mr. Davidson confronts Sadie, resolving to save her soul. When she dismisses his offer, Davidson has the Governor order her deported to San Francisco, California, where she is wanted for an unspecified crime (for which she says she was framed).

She begs Davidson to allow her to remain on the island a few more days – her plan is to flee to Sydney, Australia. During a heated argument with Davidson, she experiences a religious conversion and agrees to return to San Francisco and the jail sentence awaiting her there.

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The evening before she is to leave, Sergeant O’Hara asks Sadie to marry him and offers to hide her until the Sydney boat sails, but she refuses. Later, while native drums beat, the repressed Davidson satisfies his lust with Sadie. The next morning he is found dead on the beach – a suicide. Davidson’s hypocrisy and betrayal cause Thompson to return to her old self and she goes off to Sydney with O’Hara to start a new life.

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Rain was not well received – either critically or financially – upon initial release. The unglamorous role for Crawford, and bold story (religious hypocrisy being its main theme), caught Depression-era audiences off guard.

Motion Picture Herald commented, “Because the producers have made such a strong attempt to establish the stern impressiveness of the story, it is rather slow. In its drive to become powerful, it appears to have lost the spark of spontaneity….Joan Crawford and Walter Huston are satisfactory.”

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Variety noted, “It turns out to be a mistake to have assigned the Sadie Thompson role to Miss Crawford. It shows her off unfavorably. The dramatic significance of it all is beyond her range…. [Director] Milestone tried to achieve action with the camera, but wears the witnesses down with words.

Joan Crawford’s get-up as the light lady is extremely bizarre. Pavement pounders don’t quite trick themselves up as fantastically as all that. In commercial favor of Rain is the general repute of the theme and Miss Crawford’s personal following, but the finished product will not help either.”

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Box office

The film earned $538,000 in the United States and Canada and $166,000 elsewhere, resulting in a loss of $198,000.

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  1. Jump up^ Pierce, David (March 29, 2001). Legal Limbo: How American Copyright Law Makes Orphan Films (mp3 in “file3”). Orphans of the Storm II: Documenting the 20th Century. Retrieved 2012-01-05.

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Film Collectors Corner

Watch Rain Now – Amazon Instant Video

Blu Ray

Not released on Blu Ray as yet



Frankenstein (1931)

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Frankenstein (1931)

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Director: James Whale

Cast: Colin Clive, Mae Clarke, Boris Karloff, Edward Van Sloan, Frederick Kerr, Dwight Frye, Lionel Belmore, Marylin Harris, Ted Billings, Mae Bruce, Jack Curtis, Arleta Duncan

70 min

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Frankenstein is a 1931 American pre-Code horror monster film from Universal Pictures directed by James Whale and adapted from the play by Peggy Webling (which in turn is based on the novel of the same name by Mary Shelley), about a scientist and his assistant who dig up corpses to build a man animated by electricity, but his assistant accidentally gives the creature an abnormal, murderer’s brain. The resultant monster is portrayed by Boris Karloff in the film.

The movie stars Colin Clive, Mae Clarke, John Boles and Karloff, and features Dwight Frye and Edward van Sloan. The Webling play was adapted by John L. Balderston and the screenplay written by Francis Edward Faragoh and Garrett Fort with uncredited contributions from Robert Florey and John Russell.

The make-up artist was Jack Pierce. A hit with both audiences and critics, the film was followed by multiple sequels and has become arguably the most iconic horror film.

In 1991, the Library of Congress selected Frankenstein for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant.”[3]

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1931 Frankenstein film trailer

In a European village, a young scientist, named Henry Frankenstein, and his assistant Fritz, a hunchback, piece together a human body, the parts of which have been collected from various sources. Frankenstein desires to create human life through electrical devices which he has perfected.

Elizabeth, his fiancée, is worried over his peculiar actions. She cannot understand why he secludes himself in an abandoned watch tower, which he has equipped as a laboratory, refusing to see anyone. She and a friend, Victor Moritz, go to Dr. Waldman, Henry’s old medical professor, and ask Waldman’s help in reclaiming the young scientist from his experiments.

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Waldman tells them that Frankenstein has been working on creating life. Elizabeth, intent on rescuing Frankenstein, arrives just as Henry is making his final tests. He tells them to watch, claiming to have discovered the ray that brought life into the world. They watch Frankenstein and the hunchback as they raise the dead creature on an operating table, high into the room, toward an opening at the top of the laboratory. Then a terrific crash of thunder, the crackling of Frankenstein’s electric machines, and the hand of Frankenstein’s monster begins to move, prompting Frankenstein to shout ‘It’s alive!’.

Through the incompetence of Fritz, a criminal brain was secured for Frankenstein’s experiments instead of the desired normal one. The manufactured monster, despite its grotesque form, initially appears to be a simple, innocent creation. Frankenstein welcomes it into his laboratory and asks his creation to sit, which it does. He then opens up the roof, causing the monster to reach out towards the sunlight. Fritz enters with a flaming torch, which frightens the monster.

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Its fright is mistaken by Frankenstein and Waldman as an attempt to attack them, and it is chained in the dungeon. Thinking that it is not fit for society and will wreak havoc at any chance, they leave the monster locked up, where Fritz antagonizes it with a torch. As Henry and Waldman consider the monster’s fate, they hear a shriek from the dungeon. Frankenstein and Waldman find the monster has strangled Fritz.

The monster lunges at the two but they escape, locking the monster inside. Realizing that the creature must be destroyed, Henry prepares an injection of a powerful drug and the two conspire to release the monster and inject it as it attacks. When the door is unlocked the creature lunges at Frankenstein as Waldman injects the drug into the creature’s back. The monster falls to the floor unconscious.

Henry leaves to prepare for his wedding while Waldman examines the creature. As he is preparing to vivisect it, the creature awakens and strangles him. It escapes from the tower and wanders through the landscape.

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It has a short encounter with a farmer’s young daughter, Maria, who asks him to play a game with her in which they toss flowers into a lake and watch them float. The monster enjoys the game, but when they run out of flowers the monster thinks Maria will float as well, so he throws her into the lake where, to his puzzlement, she drowns. Upset by this outcome, the monster runs away.

With preparations for the wedding completed, Frankenstein is serenely happy with Elizabeth. They are to marry as soon as Waldman arrives. Victor rushes in, saying that the Doctor has been found strangled in his operating room. Frankenstein suspects the monster. A chilling scream convinces him that the monster is in the house. When the searchers arrive, they find Elizabeth unconscious on the bed. The monster has escaped.

Maria’s father arrives, carrying his daughter’s body. He says she was murdered, and a band of peasants form a search party to capture the monster, and bring it to justice. In order to search the whole country for the monster, they split into three groups: Ludwig leads the first group into the woods, Frankenstein leads the second group into the mountains, and the Burgomaster leads the third group by the lake.

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During the search, Frankenstein becomes separated from the group and is discovered by the monster, who attacks him. The monster knocks Frankenstein unconscious and carries him off to an old mill. The peasants hear his cries and they regroup to follow. They find the monster has climbed to the top, dragging Frankenstein with him. The monster hurls the scientist to the ground. His fall is broken by the vanes of the windmill, saving his life. Some of the villagers hurry him to his home while the rest of the mob set the windmill ablaze, killing the entrapped monster inside.

At Castle Frankenstein, Frankenstein’s father, Baron Frankenstein celebrates the wedding of his recovered son with a toast to a future grandchild.

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In 1930, Universal Studios had lost $2.2 million in revenues. Within 48 hours of its opening at New York’s Roxy Theatre on February 12, 1931, Dracula starring Bela Lugosi had sold 50,000 tickets, building a momentum that culminated in a $700,000 profit, the largest of Universal’s 1931 releases. As a result, head of production Carl Laemmle, Jr. announced immediate plans for more horror films.[4]

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Frankenstein begins with Edward Van Sloan stepping from behind a curtain and delivering a brief caution before the opening credits:

How do you do? Mr. Carl Laemmle feels it would be a little unkind to present this picture without just a friendly word of warning: We are about to unfold the story of Frankenstein, a man of science who sought to create a man after his own image without reckoning upon God. It is one of the strangest tales ever told. It deals with the two great mysteries of creation; life and death. I think it will thrill you. It may shock you. It might even horrify you. So, if any of you feel that you do not care to subject your nerves to such a strain, now’s your chance to uh, well, ––we warned you!!

Immediately, following his success in Dracula, Bela Lugosi had hoped to play Dr. Frankenstein in Universal’s original film concept, but the actor was expected by Carl Laemmle, Jr. to be the Monster[5] (a common move for a contract player in a film studio at the time) to keep his famous name on the bill.[6]

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After several disastrous make-up tests (said to resemble that of Paul Wegener in The Golem), the Dracula star left the project. Although this is often regarded as one of the worst decisions of Lugosi’s career, in actuality, the part that Lugosi was offered was not the same character that Karloff eventually played.

The character in the Florey script was simply a killing machine without a touch of human interest or pathos, reportedly causing Lugosi to complain, “I was a star in my country[7] and I will not be a scarecrow over here!”[8] Florey later wrote that “the Hungarian actor didn’t show himself very enthusiastic for the role and didn’t want to play it.”

However, the decision may not have been Lugosi’s in any case, since recent evidence suggests that he was kicked off the project, along with director Robert Florey when the newly arrived James Whale asked for the property. Whale had been imported from England by the Laemmles and given a free hand as to his choice of projects at Universal.

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He was immediately attracted to Frankenstein and greatly revised the script and conceptualization of the project, which had troubled the management. Florey and Lugosi were given the Murders in the Rue Morgue film, as a consolation.

Lugosi would later go on to play the monster in Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man a decade later, when his career was in decline (in the original shooting script the Monster spoke, cancelling Lugosi’s initial objection to the part, but his filmed dialogue sequences were cut prior to release, along with the premise that the Monster was blind, which was the way Lugosi had played it).[9]

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Actors who worked on the project were, or became familiar to, fans of the Universal horror films. These included Frederick Kerr as the old Baron Frankenstein, Henry’s father; Lionel Belmore as Herr Vogel, the Bürgermeister; Marilyn Harris as Little Maria, the girl the monster accidentally kills; Dwight Frye as Frankenstein’s hunchbacked assistant, Fritz; and Michael Mark as Ludwig, Maria’s father. Kerr died a year and a half later.

Kenneth Strickfaden designed the electrical effects used in the “creation scene.” So successful were they that such effects came to be considered an essential part of every subsequent Universal film involving the Frankenstein Monster. Accordingly, the equipment used to produce them has come to be referred to in fan circles as “Strickfadens.”

It appears that Strickfaden managed to secure the use of at least one Tesla Coil built by the inventor Nikola Tesla himself.[10] According to this same source, Strickfaden also doubled for Karloff during the creation scene, as Karloff was afraid of being burned by sparks being thrown off the arcing electrical equipment simulating lightning.

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Although he was partially covered by a surgical drape, Karloff’s abdomen was otherwise exposed during the scene and the high-voltage arc “scissors” threw white-hot bits of metal when they were used to create flashes.

The film opened in New York City at the Mayfair Theatre on December 4, 1931, and grossed $53,000 in one week.[8]

Pre-Code era scenes and censorship history

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The scene in which the monster throws the little girl into the lake and accidentally drowns her has long been controversial. Upon its original 1931 release, the second part of this scene was cut by state censorship boards in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and New York.[8]

Those states also objected to a line they considered blasphemous, one that occurred during Frankenstein’s exuberance when he first learns that his creature is alive. The original line was: “It’s alive! It’s alive! In the name of God! Now I know what it feels like to be God!”[8] Kansas requested the cutting of 32 scenes, which, if removed, would have halved the length of the film.[11]

Jason Joy of the Studio Relations Committee sent censor representative Joseph Breen to urge them to reconsider. Eventually, an edited version was released in Kansas.[8] The shot of Maria being thrown into the lake was rediscovered during the 1980s in the collection of the British National Film Archive. Modern copies incorporate it.[12]

As with many Pre-Code films that were reissued after strict enforcement of the Production Code in 1934, Universal made cuts from the original camera negative.[13]

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Mordaunt Hall gave Frankenstein a very positive review and said that the film “aroused so much excitement at the Mayfair yesterday that many in the audience laughed to cover their true feelings.” “[T]here is no denying that it is far and away the most effective thing of its kind. Beside it Dracula is tame and, incidentally, Dracula was produced by the same firm”.[14]

Film Daily also lauded the picture, calling it a “gruesome, chill-producing and exciting drama” that was “produced intelligently and lavishly and with a grade of photography that is superb.”[15]

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Variety reported that it “Looks like a Dracula plus, touching a new peak in horror plays,” and described Karloff’s performance as “a fascinating acting bit of mesmerism.” Its review also singled out the look of the film as uniquely praiseworthy, calling the photography “splendid” and the lighting “the last word in ingenuity, since much of the footage calls for dim or night effect and the manipulation of shadows to intensify the ghostly atmosphere.”[16]

John Mosher of The New Yorker was less enthused, calling the film only a “moderate success” and writing that “The makeup department has a triumph to its credit in the monster and there lie the thrills of the picture, but the general fantasy lacks the vitality which that little Mrs. P.B. Shelley was able to give her book.”[17]

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Frankenstein has continued to receive acclaim from critics and is widely regarded as one of the best films of 1931,[18][19][20][21] as well as one of the greatest movies of all time.[22][23] It holds a 100% “Fresh” rating on the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes.[24] In 1991, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being deemed “culturally, historically or aesthetically significant”.[25][26] In 2004, The New York Times placed the film on its Best 1000 Movies Ever list.[27]

Frankenstein also received recognition from the American Film Institute. It was named the 87th greatest movie of all time on 100 Years… 100 Movies.[22] The line “It’s alive! It’s alive!” was ranked as the 49th greatest movie quote in American cinema.[28] The film was on the ballot for several of AFI’s 100 series lists, including AFI’s 10 Top 10 for the sci-fi category,[29] 100 Years… 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition),[30] and twice on 100 Years… 100 Heroes and Villains for both Dr. Henry Frankenstein and the Monster in the villains category.[31]

The film was ranked number 56 on AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Thrills, a list of America’s most heart-pounding movies.[32] It was also ranked number 27 on Bravo‘s 100 Scariest Movie Moments.[33] Additionally, the Chicago Film Critics Association named it the 14th scariest film ever made.[34]

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Box office

The film was a big hit. In June 1932 the film had earned reported rentals of $1.4 million. In 1943 Universal reported it had earned a profit of $708,871. By 1953 all the Frankenstein films earned an estimated profit of $13 million.[35]


The next sequel, 1939’s Son of Frankenstein, was made, like all those that followed, without Whale or Clive (who had died in 1937). This film featured Karloff’s last full film performance as the Monster.

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Son of Frankenstein featured Basil Rathbone as Baron Wolf von Frankenstein, Bela Lugosi as bearded hunchback Ygor, and Lionel Atwill as Inspector Krogh.

The Ghost of Frankenstein was released in 1942. The movie features Lon Chaney, Jr. as the Monster, taking over from Boris Karloff, who played the role in the first three films of the series, and Bela Lugosi in his second appearance as the demented Ygor.

The fifth installment, Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man was released in 1943, directed by Roy William Neill, and starring Bela Lugosi as Frankenstein’s monster. This is also the sequel to The Wolf Man, with Lon Chaney, Jr. as the Wolf Man.

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Karloff returned to the series, but not the role, in the 1944 followup, House of Frankenstein, which also featured Chaney, and adds Dracula, played by John Carradine, and a Hunchback for good measure. 1945’s House of Dracula continued the theme of combining Universal’s three most popular monsters.

Many of the subsequent films which featured Frankenstein’s monster demote the creature to a robotic henchman in someone else’s plots, such as in its final Universal film appearance in the deliberately farcical Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein (1948).

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Other adaptations

  • Karloff would return to the wearing of the makeup and to the role of the monster one last time in a 1962 episode of the TV show Route 66.
  • The popular 1960s TV show, The Munsters, depicts the family’s father Herman as Frankenstein’s monster, who married Count Dracula‘s daughter. The make-up for Herman is based on the make-up of Boris Karloff.

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Frankenstein’s assistant

Although Frankenstein’s hunchbacked assistant is often referred to as “Igor” in descriptions of the films, he is not so called in the earliest films. In both Frankenstein and Bride of Frankenstein, Frankenstein has an assistant who is played both times by Dwight Frye who is crippled. In the original 1931 film the character is named “Fritz” who is hunchbacked and walks with the aid of a small cane.

In Bride of Frankenstein, Frye plays “Karl” a murderer who stands upright but has a lumbering metal brace on both legs that can be heard clicking loudly with every step. Both characters would be killed by Karloff’s monster in their respective films.

It was not until Son of Frankenstein (1939) that a character called “Ygor” first appears (here played by Bela Lugosi and revived by Lugosi in 1942’s The Ghost of Frankenstein after his apparent murder in the earlier film). This character — a deranged blacksmith whose neck was broken and twisted due to a botched hanging — befriends the monster and later helps Dr. Wolf Frankenstein, leading to the “hunchbacked assistant” called “Igor” commonly associated with Frankenstein in pop culture.

Frye also appears in later films in the series, such as in Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man (1943).

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Cancelled remake

Guillermo del Toro had expressed interest in directing the reboot film for Universal.[36] Del Toro said his Frankenstein would be a faithful “Miltonian tragedy”, citing Frank Darabont‘s “near perfect” script, which evolved into Kenneth Branagh‘s Frankenstein.[37] Del Toro said of his vision, “What I’m trying to do is take the myth and do something with

Del Toro said of his vision, “What I’m trying to do is take the myth and do something with it, but combining elements of Frankenstein and Bride of Frankenstein without making it just a classical myth of the monster. The best moments in my mind of

The best moments in my mind of Frankenstein, of the novel, are yet to be filmed […] The only guy that has ever nailed for me the emptiness, not the tragic, not the Miltonian dimension of the monster, but the emptiness is Christopher Lee in the Hammer films, where he really looks like something obscenely alive. Boris Karloff has the tragedy element nailed down but there are so many versions, including that great screenplay by Frank Darabont that was ultimately not really filmed.”[38]

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He has also cited Bernie Wrightson‘s illustrations as inspiration, and said the film will not focus on the monster’s creation, but be an adventure film featuring the character.[39] Del Toro said he would like Wrightson to design his version of the creature. The film will also focus on the religious aspects of Shelley’s tale.[40] In June 2009, del Toro stated that production on Frankenstein was not likely to begin for at least four years.[41] Despite this, he has already cast frequent collaborator

Despite this, he has already cast frequent collaborator Doug Jones in the role of Frankenstein’s monster. In an interview with Sci Fi Wire, Jones stated that he learned of the news the same day as everybody else; that “Guillermo did say to the press that he’s already cast me as his monster, but we’ve yet to talk about it. But in his mind, if that’s what he’s decided, then it’s done … It would be a dream come true.”[42] The film will be a period piece.[43]

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Universal Pictures is developing a shared universe of rebooted modern-day versions of their classic Universal Monsters, with various films in different stages of development.

In June of 2017, producer/director Alex Kurtzman revealed that Frankenstein is one of the films that will have an installment in the Dark Universe.[44]Javier Bardem is cast to portray the titular character.

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See also

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  1. Jump up^ Michael Brunas, John Brunas & Tom Weaver, Universal Horrors: The Studios Classic Films, 1931-46, McFarland, 1990 p24
  2. Jump up^ Box Office Information for Frankenstein. The Numbers. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
  3. Jump up^ “Brief Descriptions and Expanded Essays of National Film Registry Titles”. The Library of Congress. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  4. Jump up^ Vieira, Mark A. (2003). Hollywood Horror: From Gothic to Cosmic. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. p. 35. ISBN 0-8109-4535-5.
  5. Jump up^ It’s Alive! The Classic Cinema Saga of Frankenstein – A.S. Barnes, San Diego, California,1981
  6. Jump up^ “”Frankenstein” Cast Chosen.”. New York Times. August 30, 1931. The Universal production of Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” is taking shape under the knowing guidance of James Whale. Boris Karloff and not Bela Lugosi is the final choice to play the monster.
  7. Jump up^ Bela Lugosi was born outside the western border of Transylvania in Austria–Hungary (now Lugoj, Romania)
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Vieira. pgs. 42–3
  9. Jump up^ MagicImage Filmbooks Series, Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man
  10. Jump up^ Golman, Harry (November 11, 2005). Kenneth Strickfaden, Dr. Frankenstein’s Electrician. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-2064-2.
  11. Jump up^ Doherty. pg. 297
  12. Jump up^ Robert Horton Frankenstein, New York & Chichester: Wallflower Press & Columbia University Press, 2014, p.24
  13. Jump up^ Vieira. pg. 48
  14. Jump up^ Review by Mordaunt Hall, The New York Times
  15. Jump up^ “Frankenstein”. Film Daily. New York: Wid’s Films and Film Folk, Inc.: 10 December 6, 1931.
  16. Jump up^ Greason, Alfred Rushford (December 8, 1931). “Frankenstein”. Variety. New York: Variety, Inc. p. 14.
  17. Jump up^ Mosher, John (December 12, 1931). “The Current Cinema”. The New Yorker. New York: P-B Publishing Corporation. p. 81.
  18. Jump up^ “The Greatest Films of 1931”. AMC Filmsite.org. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  19. Jump up^ “The Best Movies of 1931 by Rank”. Films101.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  20. Jump up^ “The Best Films of 1931”. listal.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  21. Jump up^ “Most Popular Feature Films Released in 1931”. IMDb.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  22. ^ Jump up to:a b “AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Movies” (PDF). AFI.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  23. Jump up^ “5-Star Movies by Rank”. Films101.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  24. Jump up^ Frankenstein Movie Reviews, Pictures”. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  25. Jump up^ “Films Selected to the National Film Registry, Library of Congress 1989 to 2009”. LOC.gov. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  26. Jump up^ Frankenstein: Award Wins and Nominations”. IMDb.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  27. Jump up^ “The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made”. The New York Times. April 29, 2003. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  28. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Movie Quotes” (PDF). AFI.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  29. Jump up^ “AFI’s 10 Top 10 Official Ballot” (PDF). AFI.com. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  30. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) Official Ballot” (PDF). AFI.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  31. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Heroes and Villains: The 400 Nominated Characters”(PDF). AFI.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  32. Jump up^ “AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Thrills” (PDF). AFI.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  33. Jump up^ “Bravo’s The 100 Scariest Movie Moments”. web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
  34. Jump up^ “Chicago Critics’ Scariest Films”. AltFilmGuide.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  35. Jump up^ Stephen Jacobs, Boris Karloff: More Than a Monster, Tomohawk Press 2011 p 107
  36. Jump up^ Brendon Connelly (2009-06-11). “Guillermo Del Toro Confirms Hugo Weaving For The Hobbit… And Much More”. /Film. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
  37. Jump up^ Mike Sampson (2007-10-26). “Guillermo talks!”. JoBlo.com. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  38. Jump up^ Chris Hewitt (2008-02-08). “Guillermo Del Toro Talks The Hobbit”. Empire. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  39. Jump up^ Max Evry (2008-10-05). “Guillermo del Toro on The Hobbit and Frankenstein”. ComingSoon.net. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  40. Jump up^ Josh Horowitz (2008-10-14). “Guillermo Del Toro Talks ‘Hobbit’ Casting, Creatures”. MTV. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  41. Jump up^ “Guillermo Del Toro Casts Doug Jones in Frankenstein. June 14, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  42. Jump up^ Frappier, Rob (June 24, 2009). “Doug Jones Talks Frankenstein, The Hobbit, &Hellboy 3. Screen Rant. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  43. Jump up^ “Hobbits, monsters and CSI vampires”. BBC News Online. 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
  44. Jump up^ http://screenrant.com/dark-universe-hunchback-of-notre-dame-phantom-of-the-opera/

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  • Doherty, Thomas Patrick. Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema 1930-1934. New York: Columbia University Press 1999. ISBN 0-231-11094-4
  • Vieira, Mark A., Sin in Soft Focus. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 2003. ISBN 0-8109-8228-5

See also

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Frankenstein 47

Film Collectors Corner

Watch Frankenstein Now – Amazon Instant Video

Blu Ray

Complete Legacy Collection


Double Bill – Frankenstein/The Bride Of Frankenstein


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Frankenstein 49

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